I remember seeing cement cattle watering troughs that were tapered to prevent freezing water from breaking them. It seems the bottom was about 2 feet wide and the top about 3 feet. They have been in constant use for many years.
Another design used compressed air to create millions of tiny bubbles to keep the water from freezing. The log Paul mentioned will do the same thing. That is, agitating the water to keep it in constant motion will lower, but not prevent freezing.
Some of my neighbors have buried their concrete waterers in the ground with the top exposed. It depends on your climate.http://www.carrconcrete.com/Agriculture/freeze.html
Poly tanks and PEX or Pvc plastic pipes would be my first choice.
I'll bet some of the old how to do it books would have something.
If you could find insulation that would expand and contract with the freeze thaw cycle and last, that would work too.